Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 7, 2020; 26(25): 3562-3576
Published online Jul 7, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i25.3562
Table 1 Available tools used for investigation of nutrient-gut interactions
Cellular modelsEE cell linesEstablished secretion profiles; genetically modifiable; readily accessibleLimited resemblance to native l-cells; lack of inter-organ interaction; limited success in clinical translation
Tissue-based approachesIntestinal organoidsPreserved native architecture; region-specific functions; high plasticity for oriented differentiationUndefined secretion profiles; lack of integrated nervous or immune systems; inconsistent culture outcomes
Isolated intestinal tissuesPreserved native intestinal structure; access to luminal and basolateral surface; high physiological relevanceShort viable period; lack of inter-organ interaction; limited access to human tissue; low EE cell density
Intestinal intubationIn vivo infusion in gutRegion-specific delivery; direct insights into human (patho-)physiologyTechnically demanding; restricted to specialised research centre
Novel techniques3D cultureEnhanced anatomical complexity; compatibility with co-culture systemLimited cellular variety; static culture environment
Intestine-on-a-chipDynamic culture environment; recapitulation of luminal eventsSophisticated validation of the system; partial resemblance to luminal physiology
Ingestible sensorsA broad range of application; high potential for multi-purposed in vivo investigationDifficulty in signal interpretation; lack of stability; High cost