Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 7, 2017; 23(5): 776-791
Published online Feb 7, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i5.776
Table 4 Case reports regarding the association of autoimmune hepatitis and celiac disease
Number of patientsSymptomsAIH antibodiesCeliac antibodiesDuodenal biopsyResponse to gluten-free dietLiver biopsyComorbiditiesCountry, yearAuthors
1Anemia, infectionASM 1:500AGA IgA and IgG (+)Typical1Yes2Active chronic hepatitisErythroblastopeniaFrance, 2001Bridoux-Henno et al[124]
anti-vimentin 1:500EmA (+)
1Weight loss,ANA 1:1280, p-ANCA 1:2560, SMA 1:1200, LKM1 1:50Reticulin antibodiesTypical1No, developed AIH despite of a gluten-free dietChronic inflammationThyrotoxicosisFinland, 2002Arvola et al[34]
fatigue, abdominal pain, and diarrheato 1:2000In the portal area and proliferation of the small hepatic
AGA IgA (+)Ductules. Patchy degeneration of the liver cells.
2Diarrhea, abdominal enlargement andANA (+)??case 1: poor response to aAcute hepatitis-Italy, 2003Leonardi et al[125]
failure to thrive.SMA (+)gluten-free diet for the treatment of hepatitis;With portal bridging necrosis and fibrosis and a
antiactine (+)case 2: developed AIH despite the dietPeri-portal inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes,
Plasma cells and neutrophils
1Elevated liver enzymes detected, hypesthesia of the leftANA (+)AGA (+)Typical1Poor adherence to dietModerately active, chronic hepatitis withCryoglobulinaemiaSwitzerland, 2003Biecker et al[126]
foot, purpura and skin ulcers of both legs.EmA (+)Interface lesions and fibrosis of the portal tract,
Bile duct lesions and ductular
1Jaundice and pale stools.All negative. Score probableAGA IgA (+)Typical1Liver disease progressed despite the dietModerate to severe.-Italy, 2004Iorio et al[127]
AGA IgG (+)lobular inflammatory activity, mononuclear portal
Ema (+)inflammation, interface hepatitis, and portal and periportal
tTG IgA (+)fibrosis with septae; rosetting of liver cells
and some giant cells.
1Ferropenia-tTG (+)Villous atrophyElevation of aminotranferases despite the diet.severe ymphocytic inflammatory infiltratePeru, 2006Tagle et al[128]
and elevation of aminotransferases.with slight increase of collagen in
portal tracts, foci of lobular necrosis and presence
acidophilus bodies
1Anorexia, severe diarrhea, rapid loss of weight,ANA (+)EmA (+)Villous atrophyDeveloped cirrhosis despite the dietCirrhosisHolmes-Adie syndromeHungary, 2006Csak et al[129]
amenorrhea and anemia.SMA (+)tTG (+)
1JaundiceSMA (+)AGA (+)Typical1Poor adherence to dietConfirmed the diagnosis of acute AIHMultiple sclerosisItaly, 2008Ferrò et al[130]
EmA (+)
tTG IgA (+) IgG (+)
1Weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and diarrhea.ANA+++AGA IgA (+)Typical1Liver disease was diagnosed on a gluten-free dietModerately active, chronic hepatitis with interface lesionsAutoimmune cholangitis overlap, Autoimmune thyroiditisTurkey, 2009Ozaslan et al[131]
AGA IgG (+)And fibrosis of the portal tracts, ductular injury and ductopenia.
EmA (+)
tTG (+)
1Malaise,ANA, SMA, LKM-1, mitochondrial, anti-LC1,EmA (+)Typical1No, developed AIH despite of a gluten-free dietLymphoplasmacytic hepatitis (portal interface and lobular)-United Kingdom, 2009Quail et al[132]
intermittent pyrexia and vomiting, an urticarial-vasculiticanti-SLA/LP, parietal celltTG (+)With moderate to marked activity and minimal
rash and joint pains.antibodies, all negativeChronicity (fibrosis stage 1/6).
1Two miscarriages, iron deficiency anemia, osteopenia and alternating bowel habit, elevated aminotransferasesANA +++, homogeneous; SMA ++, anti-dsDNAEmA 1:160Severe villous atrophyYes2ChronicLupusItaly, 2010Tovoli et al[133]
0.1527778Active hepatitis with piecemeal necrosis and lympho-plasmacellular periportal infiltrate
1anemia, weakness and highANA 1:640,EmA (+)Flat mucosaNo, developed acute liver failureSevere fibrosisNoneItaly, 2013Volta et al[134]
aminotransferase levelsSMA 1:320,tTG (+)
pANCA 1:160
1Miscontrol of diabetesANA 1:160IgA tTG (+)Typical1Yes2Moderate interface hepatitis and chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and foci of necrosisAutoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetesSpain, 2016Dieli-crimi et al[135]
Altered liver enzymesEmA (-)