Topic Highlight
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 7, 2015; 21(37): 10584-10597
Published online Oct 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i37.10584
Table 1 Genes upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma; putative oncogenes
Symbol (location)Biological functionExpressionnRelevant clinical factorsFunctional analysesInteracting moleculesIn vivoRef.
AURKA (20q13)Cell cycle-regulated kinaseIHC44OS, RFS, number, stageChemoresistance, apoptosisNF-κB, miRNA-21, PTENYes40
BIRC7 (20q13.3)Inhibitor of apoptosis protein familymRNA, IHC, WB61NoneProliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosisCDK-21
Brachyury (6q27)Embryonic nuclear transcription factormRNA, IHC112OS, size, stageMigration, invasionPTEN, Akt, Snail, EMT-22
CCL20 (2q36.3)Cytokine displaying chemotactic activity for lymphocytesIHC62OS, RFS, AFP, size, mumber, vascular invasion, differentiationProliferation, migrationpAKT, β-catenin, EMT-45
CCT8 (21q22.11)Transport and assembly of newly synthesized proteinsIHC102OS, grade, sizeProliferation, cell cycle--30
CTSL (9q21.33)A lysosomal cysteine proteinase for intracellular protein catabolismmRNA, IHC, WB82OS, RFS, stage, differentiationProliferation, tumorigenesis-Yes36
CYTH3 (7p22.1)Mediator of protein sorting and membrane traffickingmRNA, IHC202OS, size, vascular invasionProliferation, migration--24
DLX4 (17q21.33)Forebrain and craniofacial developmentmRNA, IHC, WB226OS, size, differentiation, AFP---27
GOLPH3 (5p13.3)Peripheral membrane protein of the Golgi stack regulating Golgi traffickingmRNA, IHC173OS, stageChemoresistance, apoptosis, angiogenesis, proliferationNF-κBYes44
GSC (14q32.1)Autoregulatory transcription factormRNA, IHC, WB112OS, distant metastasisMigration, invasionEMT-39
HSF1 (8q24.3)Heat-shock transcription factor rapidly induced after temperature stressIHC67OSProliferation--34
IL-6 (7p21)Cytokine that functions in inflammation and the maturation of B cellsmRNA, IHC, WB, ELISA120RFS, vascular invasion, numberStemnessIGFIR, OCT4, NANOGYes43
ISG15 (1p36.33)Chemotactic activity towards neutrophilsmRNA, IHC50OS, differentiation, distant metastasisProliferation, migrationSurvivinYes33
KPNA2 (17q24.2)Nuclear transporter of proteins and VJ recombinationmRNA, IHC314OS, RFS, sizeProliferation, metastasisPLAG1-29
LGALS3 (14q22.3)Member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteinsmRNA, IHC, WB165OS, microvessel densityProliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis--31
MACC1 (7p21.1)Regulator of HGF-HGFR pathwaymRNA, IHC, WB50OS, grade, stageProliferation, apoptosisHGF, c-MET, PI3K, AKT, Caspase 9Yes47
MAGED2 (Xp11.21)Promotor of the cancer cell adhesion to the vascular epitheliummRNA, IHC151OS---51
MAGED4 (Xp11.22)UnknownmRNA, IHC94OS, RFS, AFP, vascular invasion, differentiation---50
MCT4 (17q25)Catalyzing lactic acid and pyruvate transport across plasma membranes.IHC318OS, RFS, AFP, sizeProliferation, migration, invasionpAKT, HIF-1α-26
MRC2 (17q23.2)Extracellular matrix remodeling by mediating the internalizationIHC96OS, number, vascular invasionMigration, invasionTGFb-25
PDGFRα (4q12)Cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for platelet-derived growth factor familymRNA57OS, RFS, vascular invasion, microvessel densityProliferation, migration, invasionEMTYes38
PKM2 (15q22)Pyruvate kinase generating ATP and pyruvatemRNA, IHC, WB721OS, RFS, size, vascular invasion, differentiationProliferation, migration, invasionpAKT, HIF-1αYes46
PLK1 (16p12.2)Controlling mitotic entry, centrosome maturation, and bipolar spindle formationIHC67Differentiation, capsule invasionProliferation, cell cycle, apoptosiscaspase 3/8, Bax, Bcl-2-37
PTP4A1 (6q12)Regulator of cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migrationIHC167OSMigration, invasionPI3K/AKT/ GSK3β pathway-32
SERPINB3 (18q21.3)Ovalbumin family of serine proteinase inhibitorsmRNA, IHC67RFS-HIF-2α-41
SIRT1 (10q21.3)Regulating epigenetic gene silencing and suppress recombination of rDNAmRNA, IHC, WB99OS, size, number, stageMigration, invasionEMTYes28
mRNA--Proliferation, cell cyclemiR29c-58
IHC248RFSProliferation, cell cyclep53, AMPK, mTOR-59
TPX2 (20q11.2)Microtubule organization during mitosismRNA, IHC130OS, RFS, stage, number, differentiationMigration, invasionMMP2/9, pAKT-35
mRNA, IHC86OS, RFS, vascular invasion, stageProliferationYes62
TREM1 (6p21.1)Receptor belonging to the Ig superfamily that is expressed on myeloid cellsmRNA, IHC, WB322OS, RFS, age, AFPProliferation, invasion, cell cycle, apoptosisIL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, p65, STAT3, ERK-23
UBE2Q1 (1q21.3)Member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme familyIHC86OS, gradeProliferation, cell cyclep53, p21-42
UBE4B (1p36.3)Conjugation factor E4 involved in multiubiquitin chain assemblymRNA, IHC, WB149OS, grade, stageProliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosisp53, Bcl-2, caspase 3-48
VEGF-B (11q13)Regulator of angiogenesismRNA48Number, vascular invasion, capsule invasion, stage---12
YY1AP1 (1q22)UnknownMicroarray76OSProliferation, apoptosis, spheroid-formationEpCAMYes49