Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Mar 21, 2015; 21(11): 3184-3196
Published online Mar 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3184
Table 2 Risk factors for pneumococcal disease
All adults 65 and older
Symptomatic or asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus
Chronic lung disease (COPD, emphysema, and asthma)
Chronic cardiovascular diseases
Diabetes mellitus
Chronic renal failure
Nephrotic syndrome
Chronic liver disease (including cirrhosis)
Cochlear implants
Cerebrospinal fluid leaks
Immunocompromising conditions
Functional or anatomic asplenia
Residents of nursing homes or long-term care facilities