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Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 28, 2014; 20(48): 18070-18091
Published online Dec 28, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i48.18070
Table 2 Studies and their findings on leptin
HumanLeptin levels higher in obese individuals and increased with overfeeding[82,83]
Higher leptin levels in women independent of fat mass[104-107]
Body mass index and IR strongly correlated with leptin levels[84]
Central obesity correlated with higher leptin levels in comparison with non-central obesity[86]
Administration of leptin to individuals with lipoatrophic diabetes resulted in reduction of triacylglycerol concentrations, liver volume, glycated hemoglobin and discontinuation, or a large reduction in antidiabetes therapy[89]
Leptin inhibited insulin secretion and transcription of the preproinsulin gene[87]
IR associated with elevated plasma leptin levels independently of body fat[110]
Leptin/adiponectin ratio predicted T2DM in both sex[111]
Leptin C2549A AA genotype found at a higher rate in T2DM[114]
Leptin levels significantly higher in NASH, and correlated with the severity of hepatic steatosis, but not with the grade of necroinflammation or fibrosis[116-118]
Leptin not found as a predictor of histological severity of NASH[119]
No significant difference in leptin concentrations between NASH patients and controls, or in connection to the severity of liver fibrosis[120,121]
IR and low leptin levels predictors of steatosis in the liver[122]
AnimalMice lacking the ob gene became severely obese[91]
Leptin infusion attenuated hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia[92]
Mice without leptin signaling had an increased lipid accumulation in liver[93]
Leptin prevented lipid accumulation in nonadipose tissue through SREBP-1 modulation[94]
After long-term exposure to high-fat diet (> 20 wk), mice resistant to leptin even when directly infused into the brain[95-98]
Hyperleptinemia itself contributed to leptin resistance by down regulating cellular response to leptin[99]
Mice with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deficiency susceptible to diet-induced obesity, hyperleptinemia, and IR[115]
Leptin-deficient, insulin-resistant mice developed leptin resistance on a high fat diet independently of hyperleptinemia, c-Jun N-terminal kinase inflammatory pathway relevant in the induction of diet-induced glucose intolerance[100]
Leptin increased expression of procollagen-I, transforming growth factor beta1, smooth muscle actin and TNF-α and thus increased liver fibrosis and inflammation[101]
Leptin-resistant mice exhibited significantly reduced fibrogenic response[102,103]
In vitroFibrogenic effect of leptin accomplished through hepatic stellate cells, leptin a potent mitogen and apoptosis inhibitor[23]