Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 21, 2014; 20(47): 17756-17772
Published online Dec 21, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i47.17756
Figure 4
Figure 4 Alcohol and innate immune response. Both alcohol and acetaldehyde increase the intestinal permeability and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level in the portal circulation. LPS binds to TLR4 and induces the proinflammatory phenotype of Kupffer cells. Acetaldehyde and LPS also stimulate parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The innate immune system also releases anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective cytokines that activate STAT3 signaling in liver cells. ROS: Reactive oxygen species; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; IFN-γ: Interferon-γ; IL: Interleukin; NF-κB: Nuclear factor-κB.