Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7, 2014; 20(41): 15216-15232
Published online Nov 7, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i41.15216
Table 1 Immune cell populations within the small and large intestine
Cell typeSmall intestineLarge intestineRef.
Dendritic/macrophage Cells Conventional DCs (CD11chigh MHCIIhigh CD64-)
CD11b- CD8α+Yes. Peyers Patches (PP)Not readily detected but have been identified after the use of Flt3 ligand[93]
CD11b+ CD8α-Yes. PP, Lamina Propria (LP), and express CD103)Yes. Isolated Lymphoid Follicles (ILF) and Colonic Patches. LP but scarce[91,92]
CD11b- CD8α-Yes. PPUnknown[91,92,94]
CD103+YesYes. CD103+CD11b- are more abundant[91,92]
Monocyte derived DCs
Gr1+ CD11c+ plasmacytoid DCsYes. Upon inflammationYes Upon inflammation[104,105]
CD11cintBB20+ plasmacytoid DCYes. Small populations in LPYes ILF but rare[93,95]
CD11b+ F4/80+Yes. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL)Mainly LPL, IEL are scarce[110,193]
CX3CR1+Yes Production of transepithelial identified. Higher frequencies in the jejunum. Fewer in ileumYes Production of transepithelial dendrites uncertain[95,106-108,194,195]
Other innate cells
EosinophilHigh numbers in steady state located below epithelium and in LP. Highest numbers are found in duodenum. High numbers of CD22+ eosinophilsHigh numbers in steady state located below epithelium and in LP. Low numbers of CD22+ eosinophils[130-133,137,196]
BasophilsLP following infection, draining lymph nodeDraining lymph node[121-123]
Mast cellsMucosal mast cells located close to the epitheliumMucosal mast cells located close to the epithelium[140]
NK cellsIEL and lymph nodes (LN)IEL unknown, LN[149,197]
NKT cellsIELIEL, LPL[189,191,192]
Innate lymphoid cellsNuocytes: Epithelium 0.2% of total cells and mesenteric lymph node (MLN)Unknown[151]
Innate type 2 helper (Ih2): MLN peritoneumUnknown[153]
Multipotent progenitor (MPP) type2: PP, MLNCaecal patch[155]
Natural helper cell: fat associated lymphoid cluster in helminth infectionUnknown[198]
T cells IEL cells1 T cell per 5-10 epithelial cells1 T cell per 40 epithelial cells[176]
αβ T cells59%60%78%64%
gd T cells41%40%22%36%
LPL cells
Th1710%-15% of CD4+ cells2%-3% of CD4+ cells[83]
Regulatory T cells50% of regulatory T cells are Tr1-like cells, 50% are FoxP3+ cellsAlmost devoid of Tr1-like cells and 90% of regulatory T cells are Foxp3+[182]
B cells
IgA+Yes LP and in Peyer’s patchesFound in small numbers