Review
Copyright ©2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 7, 2013; 19(45): 8227-8237
Published online Dec 7, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i45.8227
Table 1 Incidence of interferon-associated retinopathy in observational studies during which more than half of the patients are treated with interferon-α based regimens for chronic hepatitis C
StudyIAR incidenceCountryTiming of examinationsComment
Nagaoka et al[17]22 of 36 (61%)JapanBaseline, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 wkIAR: no reduced VA in eyes that developed IAR. No dose reduction for management of IAR. Age was a risk factor for the development of IAR. HTN and DM were not. Atypical adverse events: nil reported.
d’Alteroche et al[18]36 of 144 (25%)1FranceBaseline and then 3 monthlyIAR: No reduced VA in eyes that developed IAR. No dose reduction for management of IAR. HTN (9 of 11), receiving PEG-IFNα and older age were more likely to develop retinopathy. Insufficient numbers with DM (n = 1). Atypical adverse events: nil reported.
Okuse et al[19]14 of 73 (19%)JapanBaseline, 2, 4, 12 and 24 wkIAR: no reduced VA in eyes that developed IAR. No dose reduction for management of IAR. HTN significantly associated with development of IAR (5 of 15), T2DM not (1 of 2). Atypical adverse events: nil reported.
Schulman et al[20]27 of 42 (64%)United StatesBaseline and then 2-3 monthly for 4-20 moIAR: therapy discontinued in two patients with multiple CWS, one with mild decrease in VA. All other patients with IAR continued with treatment. High doses of interferon used, up to 5MIU/d. HTN was not predictive of the development of IAR. Insufficient eyes for analysis of DM as risk factor (n = 2). Atypical adverse events: permanent peripheral monocular scotoma in 1 patient. Disc edema in 1 patient with a background of rheumatoid arthritis; no long term vision loss.
Jain et al[21]8 of 19 (42%)CanadaBaseline and then monthlyIAR: no change in VA in any patient with retinopathy. IAR resolved during study period in all but one patient. No dose reduction for management of IAR. Atypical adverse events: nil reported.
Saito et al[22]28 of 81 (35%)JapanBaseline and then 2 weeklyIAR: no reduced VA in eyes that developed IAR. No dose reduction for management of IAR. IAR was more likely in older patients and those with DM and/or HTN. Atypical adverse events: nil reported.
Kadayifcilar et al[23]7 of 20 (35%)2TurkeyBaseline, monthly during treatment and 1 yr after completing treatment.IAR: one of 7 with CWS at the macular had dose reduction by 1/2 for decreased VA. Full resolution in 4 wk. Otherwise no dose reduction for IAR. 16 of 20 patients had backgrounds of chronic renal failure. Atypical adverse events: unilateral BRVO in 1 patient with a background of CRF resulting in normal visual acuity at 12 mo but residual upper quadrantanopia.
Sugano et al[24]6 of 25 (24%)JapanBaseline and then 4 weeklyIAR: not available. Atypical adverse events: not available.
Kawano et al[25]36 of 63 (57%)JapanBaseline, 1, 2 and 4 wk and then 4 weekly until 6 mo after completing treatmentIAR: no dose reduction for 35 of 36 patients with IAR. Significantly higher incidence of retinopathy in patients with diabetes (11 of 12) and HTN (4 of 5). Atypical adverse events: severe RH in 1 patient with a background of DM; no long term vision loss.
Hayasaka et al[26]14 of 40 (35%)3Japan1 mo prior to starting treatment and 2 weekly during treatment.IAR: no reduced VA in eyes that developed IAR Not clear, but seems that interferon was ceased if developed IAR. Three patients with retinopathy at baseline all showed progression. Atypical adverse events: nil reported.

Citation: O’Day R, Gillies MC, Ahlenstiel G. Ophthalmologic complications of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C treatment. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19(45): 8227-8237