Copyright ©2011 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 14, 2011; 17(6): 697-707
Published online Feb 14, 2011. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i6.697
Table 3 Paris staging system for primary gastrointestinal lymphomas
StageGastrointestinal lymphomas
TXLymphoma extent not specified
T0No evidence of lymphoma
T1Lymphoma confined to the mucosa/submucosa
T1mLymphoma confined to mucosa
T1smLymphoma confined to submucosa
T2Lymphoma infiltrates muscularis propria or subserosa
T3Lymphoma penetrates serosa (visceral peritoneum) without invasion of adjacent structures
T4Lymphoma invades adjacent structures or organs
NXInvolvement of lymph nodes not assessed
N0No evidence of lymph node involvement
N1Involvement of regional lymph nodes
N2Involvement of intra-abdominal lymph nodes beyond the regional area
N3Spread to extra-abdominal lymph nodes
MXDissemination of lymphoma not assessed
M0No evidence of extranodal dissemination
M1Non-continuous involvement of separate site in gastrointestinal tract (e.g. stomach and rectum)
M2Non-continuous involvement of other tissues (e.g. peritoneum, pleura) or organs (e.g. tonsils, parotid gland, ocular, adnexa, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, breast, etc.)
BXInvolvement of bone marrow not assessed
B0No evidence of bone marrow involvement
B1Lymphomatous infiltration of bone marrow
TNMClinical staging: status of tumor, node, metastasis, bone marrow
pTNMBHistopathological staging: status of tumor, node metastasis, bone marrow
pNThe histological examination will ordinarily include six or more lymph nodes