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Copyright ©2011 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 14, 2011; 17(22): 2740-2747
Published online Jun 14, 2011. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i22.2740
Table 2 Possible mechanisms in the pathogenic interactions of smoking and inflammatory bowel disease[64]
Modulation of cellular and humoral immunity
Changes in cytokine levels
Modification of eicosanoid-mediated inflammation
Reduction of antioxidant capacity, production of oxygen free radicals
Release of endogenous glucocorticoids
Colonic mucus effects
Alteration of mucosal blood flow
Pro-thrombotic effects and promotion of microvascular thrombosis
Alteration of gut permeability
Modification of gut motility