Brief Articles
Copyright ©2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 7, 2009; 15(25): 3142-3147
Published online Jul 7, 2009. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.3142
Human papilloma virus and esophageal carcinoma in a Latin-American region
Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Marcela Lizano, Suminori Akiba, Adela Carrillo-García, Mauricio Becker-D’Acosta
Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Avenida San Fernando #22, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
Marcela Lizano, Adela Carrillo-García, Mauricio Becker-D’Acosta, Unit of Biomedical Research in Cancer, National Cancer Institute and Biomedical Research Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
Suminori Akiba, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan
Author contributions: Herrera-Goepfert R studied and selected the ESCC cases, designed and coordinated the study and drafted the article; Lizano M, Carrillo-García A and Becker-D’Acosta M performed the DNA extraction, interpreted the data from HPV molecular analysis and critically revised the manuscript; Akiba S performed the statistical analysis and critically revised the manuscript.
Correspondence to: Dr. Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Avenida San Fernando #22, Mexico City 10480, Mexico.
Telephone: +52-55-56280421
Fax: +52-55-56280421
Received: February 6, 2009
Revised: May 30, 2009
Accepted: June 6, 2009
Published online: July 7, 2009

AIM: To investigate the presence of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) in a non-selected Mexican population.

METHODS: Cases with a pathological diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were obtained from Department of Pathology files, at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City during the period between 2000 and 2008. Slides from each case were reviewed and cases with sufficient neoplastic tissue were selected for molecular analysis. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect HPV DNA sequences. Demographic and clinical data of each patient were retrieved from corresponding clinical records.

RESULTS: HPV was detected in 15 (25%) of ESCCs. HPV-16 was the most frequently observed genotype, followed by HPV-18; HPV-59 was also detected in one case. Unfortunately, HPV genotype could not be established in three cases due to lack of material for direct sequencing, although universal primers detected the presence of HPV generic sequences. No low-risk HPV genotypes were found nor was HPV-16/18 co-infection. HPV presence in ESCC was not significantly associated with gender, age, alcohol consumption, smoking, anatomic location, or histologic grade. All patients belonged to low and very low socioeconomic strata, and were diagnosed at advanced disease stage. Male patients were most commonly affected and the male:female ratio in HPV-positive ESCC increased two-fold in comparison with HPV-negative cases (6.5:1 vs 3.1:1).

CONCLUSION: High prevalence of high-risk HPV in ESCC in Mexico does not support the hypothesis that HPV-associated ESCC is more common in areas with higher ESCC incidence rates.

Keywords: Esophagus, Human papilloma virus, Squamous cell carcinoma, High-risk human papilloma virus