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Diseases of enteric peptidergic neurons
Yuan Fang Chen
YF.Diseases of enteric peptidergic neurons.Chin Natl J New Gastroenterol,1996;2(Suppl
The Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
ENS is the part of intrinsic nervous system that is embedded in the walls as myenteric or submucosal ganglia throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It
The great majority of enteric neurons are peptidergic, comprising 80% of total myenteric neurons and 85% of total submucosal neurons in the guinea pigs��1��. These peptidergic neurons may contain one or more neuropeptides, which act in concert with classic transmitters (cholinergic or adrenergic) or other transmitters (GABA, amines, ATP, purines). Co-localization of neuropeptides and
Sphincters of the GI tract play an important role in coordinating GI motility. A number of peptides and peptidergic neurons are involved in the regulation or modulation of sphincter functions, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), opioids, galanin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin
Deficit or dysplasia of enteric neurons may also lead to a variety of gastrointestinal motor diseases.
Achalasia is an esophageal disease characterized by incomplete relaxation of
Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES)
CES is a rare disease with narrowed esophageal lumen, aperistalsis and dysphagia
Infantile pyloric stenosis
This is an inborn disorder characterized by lack of relaxation in the pyloris, presented as refractory vomiting soon after birth. Normally, VIP and galanin induce relaxation or decrease the tone of the sphincter of pylorus whereas SP and opioids induce contraction or increase the tone of the sphincter of pylorus. Immunohistochemically, peptidergic ganglia or nerve fibers can be observed in the pylorus. In this disease, however, immunoreactive VIP, SP, NPY, and enkephal in nerve fibers are lost or decreased in the pylorus��2��.
Hirschsprung��s disease (aganlionosis coli) is characterized by segmental agang
Constipation with hyperganglionosis
This is a disease in young children presented as severe constipation and hyperpl
Idiopathic chronic constipation (ICC)
Low total neuron density was observed at the myenteric plexus in patients with ICC. Using anti-VIP and anti-NOS antibodies, it can be found that the densit
Using the technique of in situ hybridization, it was shown that VIP mRNA con
Chagas disease is characterized by the ganglionic damage in gastrointestinal
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VIP nitric oxide interactions.In Walsh JH,Dockray GJ (eds).Gut Peptides.Raven Press,New York,1995:715
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J Pediatr Surg,1993;28:1630
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Yuan-Fang Chen, M.D. Peking Union Medical College.