Search Article Keyword:  

PubMed Submission Abstract PDF Feed Back Count: 3035 Download Count: 532 

ISSN 1007-9327 CN 14-1219/R  World J Gastroenterol  2008 January 28; 14(4): 506-510
Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

Prasert Saichua, Choosak Nithikathkul, Natthawut Kaewpitoon

Prasert Saichua, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand

Choosak Nithikathkul, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Huachiew Chalermprakiet University, Samut Prakan 10540, Thailand

Natthawut Kaewpitoon, College of Medicine and Public Health, Ubon Rajathanee University, Ubonratchathani 34190, Thailand

Correspondence to: Prasert Saichua, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Telephone: +66-2-9269736      Fax: +66-2-9269711

Received: September 8, 2007  Revised: October 26, 2007



Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand.


© 2008 WJG. All rights reserved.


Key words: Intestinal capillariasis; Capillaria philippinensis; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Thailand


Peer reviewer: Hitoshi Asakura, Director, Emeritus Professor, International Medical Information Center, Shinanomachi Renga Bldg.35, Shinanomachi, Shinjukuku, Tokyo 160-0016, Japan


Saichua P, Nithikathkul C, Kaewpitoon N. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(4): 506-510  Available from: URL:  DOI:



Capillaria species, being round worm, are members of the superfamily Trichinelloidae. Only three major genera of this group cause human diseases: Trichuris, Trichinella and Capillaria. These worms have an esophagus which is surrounded by glandular cells or stichocytes. This esophageal pattern is called stichosomal esophagus. Capillaria species are parasites in many vertebrate animals but only three species infect humans; Capillaria hepatica,
C. aerophila and C. philippinensis[1]. C. philippinensis which causes intestinal capillariasis is the most important and found to infect the human more than other species.

In 1964, the first case of C. philippinensis infection was found in the autopsy of a 29-year-old man from Ilocos Norte province, Northern Luzon, the Philippines, who died from intractable diarrhea[2]. After that, between 1965 and 1967, this disease spread to Pudoc West village, which is approximately 150 kilometers south of the first case. More than 1000 capillariasis cases were found and 77 died of this disease. Lately, Cross reported of the total number of intestinal capillariasis cases in Northern Luzon from 1967 to 1990 to be 1884 cases and 110 deaths[3]. In addition, sporadic cases had been reported from Japan[4], Korea[5], Taiwan, China[6-8], Indonesia[9], Iran[10] and Egypt[11-14]. C. philippinensis causes intermittent or continuous diarrhea leading to weight loss, abdominal pain, borborygmi, muscle wasting, weakness and edema. If the intestinal capillariasis patients are not treated, they will have severe muscle wasting, cachexia, edema and death. Most patients died from electrolyte loss resulting in heart failure and/or septicemia[3].

The earliest case of C. philippinensis in Thailand was reported in 1973 from an 18-mo old Thai girl[15]. Since then sporadic cases had been recorded in other parts of Thailand. In 1981, the first epidemic of intestinal capillariasis was found in Srisaket province in Northeastern part of Thailand, there had been 20 cases and 9 deaths from the disease[16]. However, even when the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand are reduced, the
C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. Moreover, it probably contributes significantly to morbidity in humans. Therefore, the epidemiology, history and sources of
C. philippinensis infection in Thailand, have been reviewed in this paper.



The first record of intestinal capillariasis in Thailand was in 1973. The patient was an 18-mo old Thai girl from Bangpree District of Samut Prakan province. She had diarrhea 2 or 3 times per day, for at least 6 months and edema was found for 3 d. Laboratory examination showed low albumin and potassium in blood. The feces examination revealed eggs, larvae and adults of C. philippinensis in her stool[15]. In 1974, Saraburi Provincial hospital reported the second case of C. philippinensis infection. The 46-year old man who had watery diarrhea 4-5 times a day was admitted to hospital. The result of his blood chemistry and stool examination were similar to the first case. His feces showed a large number of eggs and adults of C. philippinensis[17]. After the two first cases, intestinal capillariasis cases were found in other provinces in Thailand; Nakorn Panom, Surin[18], Phetchabun[19] and Maha Sarakham[20]. All patients presented edema, weight loss and had a history of watery diarrhea 3 to 6 times a day. The low level of albumin and potassium in blood were found and their feces had all stages of Capillaria worm. Most of them lived in raw fish eating regions and some of the cases consumed raw fresh water fish such as Koi Pla, chopped raw fish mixed with lemon juice, finely cut red onion and chili.

The first outbreak of intestinal capillariasis in Thailand was in 1981 from a small village, Phrai Bueng district, Sisaket province. This outbreak had 20 patients and 9 deaths. Most of the cases were adults who were over 20 years of age and 80% of them habited in the same household. The authors believed that man to man transmission may be a possibility because each of the cases was sequent diarrhea[16]. In 1983, Kunaratanapruk et al reported that 100 cases of C. philippinensis infection in hospital had occurred from 1979 to 1981. There were 15 cases that died from intestinal capillariasis. Seventy three percents of the patients were aged in a range between 20 and 49 years and males were more commonly infected than females, about 2.3 times[21].

After the first epidemic in 1981, a number of cases in other parts of Thailand were reported. For example, three intestinal capillariasis patients who lived in the Northeastern part of Thailand were diagnosed by Bamrasnaradura hospital[22]. Seventeen chronic diarrhea patients with C. philippinensis were diagnosed at Srinagarind hospital, Khon Kaen University, from 1983 to 1991. Hypoalbuminemia and ova of C. philippinensis in feces were found in all those cases[23]. Two intestinal capillariasis patients from the North; Phayao and Chaing Mai who had chronic watery diarrhea were admitted to the Maharaj Nakorn Chaing Mai hospital. Both patients showed eggs of C. philippinensis in feces and they were very fond of raw fish food[24]. The latest report, a 27-year-old man who had a history of chronic watery diarrhea for two years was found to contain C. philippinensis ova and worms in his jejunum[25].



The life cycle of C. philippinensis was proposed by Cross in 1992[3]. From his experimental study, larvae of C. philippinensis
from the digestive tract of a freshwater fish (Hypselotris bipartita) in the endemic area were given by stomach tube to Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Ten to eleven days post infection; larvae developed to adult stage and female worms generated larvae in 13 to 14 d. After that, these capillaries larvae developed to adults which could release unembryonated eggs within 22-24 d. Moreover, this experiment proposed that autoinfection was found in gerbils. Because they fed only two larvae from fish to gerbils but 852 to 5353 worms were recovered[26].

The biological aspect of fish as the intermediate host of C. philippinensis was reported by several studies. In a study in Thailand, Cyprinus carpio (Pla Nai), Puntius gonionotus (Pla Tapien Khao) and Rasbora boraperensis (Pla Sew), which always are prepared to Koi Pla, were fed C. philippinensis eggs by self feeding or forced feeding. After 10-30 d the results showed the larvae of C. philippinensis were recovered from fish intestines and could develop to egg producing adult in gerbils after feeding them by those larvae[27]. Likewise, Cross et al reported Elotris melanosoma (birut), Ambassis commersoni (bagsang) and Apagon sp. (bagsit), which are fresh water fish in the Philippines, were found to be intermediate hosts in experimental infection. C. philippinensis larvae were recovered from the digestive tract of those fresh water fish and led to intestinal capillariasis after being fed to monkeys[28]. Moreover, two specimens of Apagon sp. were found naturally infected with C. philippinensis larvae but how C. philippinensis can naturally infect fish is not known. The authors suggest that defecation from humans to a water resource in the endemic area is an excellent opportunity for C. philippinensis eggs to contact and be ingested by naturally susceptible fish[28].

Bhaibulaya et al reported fish-eating birds (Amaurornis phoenicurus and Ardeola bacchus) were susceptible to
C. philippinensis infection; adults and larvae were recovered from birdsí intestinal content[29]. Similarly, Cross and Basaca-Sevilla revealed C. philippinensis larvae from fish and experimentally infected gerbils could develop to adult males, oviparous and larviparous females in several species of fish-eating birds from Taiwan (Nycticorax nycticorax, Bubulcus ibis, Ixobrychus sinensis, Gallinula chloropus, A. phoenicurus and Rostratula benghalensis) and eggs from those birds hatched and developed to larvae and adults in fish intestines[30]. Therefore, fish-eating birds may be a natural reservoir host that upon defecation, C. philippinensis eggs are released to a water resource in the endemic area or eat C. philippinensis infected fish. These mechanisms can maintain a parasite life cycle in nature.



The intestinal capillariasis patients usually present watery diarrhea weight loss, abdominal pain, borborygmi, muscle wasting, weakness, edema and laboratory examination showed low levels of potassium and albumin in blood[15,18,31] and malabsorption of fats and sugar[3,23]. Those patterns may result from C. philippinensis secretion of a proteolytic substance or direct penetration of the intestinal wall that causes cellular injury and dysfunction[23]. Several studies showed intestinal pathological findings in C. philippinensis infection which showed atrophied crypts, flattened villi, and leukocyte cell infiltration that were signs of intestinal cell injury[25,31,32]. Therefore, the destruction of the intestinal cell membrane may interrupt nutrient absorption that causes weight loss in intestinal capillariasis patients. Moreover, the intestinal cellsí destruction may lead to fluids, proteins and electrolytes loss because those intestinal cells are dysfunctional and cannot control fluids and electrolytes balance in the body[33] that results in a low level of potassium and albumin in the blood of C. philippinensis infection patients. The edema in patient, due to hypoalbuminemia[31] according to albumin levels, is plasma protein which controls the fluid in blood vessels by maintaining the osmotic pressure. If the osmotic pressure decreases, the plasma fluid in vessels leaks out of the capillaries into the interstitium and leads to edema in intestinal capillariasis patients[34].



The epidemic of C. philippinensis infection was first recognized from Ah Huad village in a province with an incidence of 20 patients and 9 dead cases[16]. Thereafter, Kunaratanapruk et al recorded intestinal capillariasis cases at hospital. The reports showed 72 cases and 12 died in 1981 and 24 cases and 2 died in 1982[21]. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006 (Figure 1). Most of the cases occurred in 1995 and only 1 case died from intestinal capillariasis in 1996 (data not show).

Human intestinal capillariasis has occurred in many parts of Thailand, but is more common in the northeastern area. Owing to the life style, most people in this area like to eat raw fish which is believed to be the source of C. philippinensis infection in the area. Interestingly, no intestinal capillariasis cases were reported from the southern region during 1999 to 2006 (Figure 1). From 1994 to 2006, most of the intestinal capillariasis accumulated cases were found in the northeastern region (53 cases) and the second highest was the central region (16 cases) (Figure 2). This report was similar to previous studies which found most of the intestinal capillariasis cases in the northeastern region[16,21,23]. The provinces in the northeastern region which were found with C. philippinensis infection in 1994 to 2006 were Buri Ram, Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Surin and Udon Thani (Figure 3). Buri Ram was had the highest reported intestinal capillariasis cases which had 24 cases from 1994-2006. From 1995 through 2006, children ages less than 1 year to 9 years had been mostly infected by C. philippinensis (Figure 4). Contrarily, in the Philippines[3] and Egypt[35] most intestinal capillariasis cases were found in middle-aged or the active age group. This result might be caused by the child playing in the cooking area while their parent prepared food and the child eating small pieces of raw fish similarly reported by El-Dib and Doss[35]. However, working age groups (25-54 years) were still infected by C. philippinensis and had 38 reported cases from 1995-2006 (Figure 4).



The detection of C. philippinensis is based on the recovery of eggs, larvae and/or adult worms in the stool of the patients. Unembryonated C. philippinensis eggs are peanut-shaped with flattened bipolar plugs and a striated shell. Larvae are found in the feces but difficultly identified as C. philippinensis[3]. An inexperienced laboratory worker may confuse with Trichuris trichiura eggs which are prominent mucoid bipolar plugs. The eggs of C. philippinensis are excreted sporadically in feces that lead to delayed diagnoses as intestinal capillariasis. Therefore, multiple stool samples may be important to early diagnosis in some cases[3]. In most of the intestinal capillariasis cases reported in Thailand eggs, larvae or adult worms in feces were found[15,16,18-20,22], but there were some patients that died from C. philippinensis infection in whom Capillaria eggs or larvae were not found in the feces[31]. However, small intestinal aspiration or biopsy may be necessary to confirm Capillaria infection[3]. For example, gastroduodenoscopy in a 13-year-old boy from central Thailand showed C. philippinensis eggs in a jejunal biopsy[32]. Moreover, jejunal mucosal biopsy and microscopic jejunal content examinations were successfully used to identify intestinal capillariasis in a 27-year-old Thai man who had negative repeated stool tests[25]. Immunodiagnosis may be a supplementary diagnostic tool which helps to detect C. philippinensis infection. Recently, Intapan et al investigated the intestinal capillaries using Trichinella spiralis antigen[36]. The study revealed sera from intestinal capillariasis patients were positive with T. spiralis antigen. This may be useful for screening of persons who have intestinal capillariasis-like symptoms before discovering Capillaria eggs or larvae in their stool[36].



C. philippinensis infection is mostly found in raw fish eating areas. For example, the people in Ilocos Norte province, in the Philippines, like to eat raw bagsit (Hypseleotris bipartita), Capillaria larvae containing fish, in a single bite leads to infection by C. philippinensis[3]. Similarly in Thailand, Koi pla and Taab Kaab are common foods that cause infection with intestinal capillariasis. Koi pla is made from chopped raw fish mixed with lemon juice, finely cut red onion and chili. Taab Kaab is made from pounded raw whole fish mixed with lemon juice, finely cut red onion and chili. These foods are favorite dishes in agricultural areas because they are easy to prepare and fresh water fish are found plentiful chiefly in these regions. In experimental study, fresh water fish in Thailand such as C. carpio (Pla Nai), P. gonionotus (Pla Tapien Khao) and R. boraperensis (Pla Sew), which are used to prepare Koi pla and Taab Kaab, could serve as experimental intermediate hosts for C. philippinensis[27]. Moreover, some people usually chew the fish freshly caught because those fish are too small to eviscerate. So the raw fresh water fish eating behavior is a major factor associated with intestinal capillariasis in Thailand.



Intestinal capillariasis is a severe disease that may lead to death unless patients are treated. The symptoms of
C. philippinensis infection are continuous or intermittent watery diarrhea associated with severe weight loss, severe protein-loss and severe electrolyte depletion. These lead patients to die from intestinal capillariasis, so the strategy to fight the disease consists of not eating raw fish, promoting a health education program and early diagnosis are necessary to minimize or eradicate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand.

The health education campaign aims to promote the consumption of cooked fish and to avoid defecation into a water resource in order to eliminate C. philippinensis infection. The early diagnosis is necessary for treating intestinal capillariasis patients, especially improving the experience of laboratory workers and multiple stool examination must be required.



The authors would like to extend our most heartfelt thanks to Dr. Suwit Piankijagum from Faculty of Science and Technology, Huachiew Chalermprakiet University for his morale encouragement and the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health for supporting data of capillariasis cases in Thailand.



1      McCarthy J, Moore TA. Emerging helminth zoonoses. Int J Parasitol 2000; 30: 1351-1360   PubMed

2      Chitwood MB, Valesquez C, Salazar NG. Capillaria philippinensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichinellida), from the intestine of

        man in the Philippines. J Parasitol 1968; 54: 368-371   PubMed

3      Cross JH. Intestinal capillariasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1992; 5: 120-129   PubMed

4      Hong S, Cross J. Capillaria philippinensis in Asia. In: Arizono N, Chai J, Nawa Y, Takahasi Y, editors. Asian Parasitology,

        Vol 1 Food borne helmithiasis in Asia. Chiba: Federation of Asian Parasitologists, 2005: 225-229

5      Lee SH, Hong ST, Chai JY, Kim WH, Kim YT, Song IS, Kim SW, Choi BI, Cross JH. A case of intestinal capillariasis in the

        Republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1993; 48: 542-546   PubMed

6      Hwang KP. Human intestinal capillariasis (Capillaria philippinensis) in Taiwan. Zhonghua Minguo Xiao Er Ke YiXue Hui

        Za Zhi 1998; 39: 82-85   PubMed

7      Lu LH, Lin MR, Choi WM, Hwang KP, Hsu YH, Bair MJ, Liu JD, Wang TE, Liu TP, Chung WC. Human intestinal capillariasis

        (Capillaria philippinensis) in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006; 74: 810-813   PubMed

8      Bair MJ, Hwang KP, Wang TE, Liou TC, Lin SC, Kao CR, Wang TY, Pang KK. Clinical features of human intestinal

        capillariasis in Taiwan. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10: 2391-2393   PubMed

9      Chichino G, Bernuzzi AM, Bruno A, Cevini C, Atzori C, Malfitano A, Scaglia M. Intestinal capillariasis (Capillaria

        philippinensis) acquired in Indonesia: a case report. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1992; 47: 10-12   PubMed

10     Hoghooghi-Rad N, Maraghi S, Narenj-Zadeh A. Capillaria philippinensis infection in Khoozestan Province, Iran: case

         report. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987; 37: 135-137   PubMed

11     Austin DN, Mikhail MG, Chiodini PL, Murray-Lyon IM. Intestinal capillariasis acquired in Egypt. Eur J Gastroenterol

        Hepatol 1999; 11: 935-936   PubMed

12     El-Dib NA, Ahmed JA, El-Arousy M, Mahmoud MA, Garo K. Parasitological aspects of Capillaria philippinensis recovered

         from Egyptian patients. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 1999; 29: 139-147   PubMed

13     el-Karaksy H, el-Shabrawi M, Mohsen N, Kotb M, el-Koofy N, el-Deeb N. Capillaria philippinensis: a cause of fatal

         diarrhea in one of two infected Egyptian sisters. J Trop Pediatr 2004; 50: 57-60   PubMed

14     Ahmed L, el-Dib NA, el-Boraey Y, Ibrahim M. Capillaria philippinensis: an emerging parasite causing severe diarrhoea

         in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 1999; 29: 483-493 

15     Pradatsundarasar A, Pecharanond K, Chintanawongs C, Ungthavorn P. The first case of intestinal capillariasis in

         Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1973; 4: 131-134 

16     Kunaratanapruk S, Iam-Ong S, Chatsirimongkol C. Intestinal Capillariasis: The first epidemic in Thailand. Ramathibodi

         Med J 1981; 4: 209-213

17     Sanpakit S, Suksungvol S, Bhaibulaya M. Intestinal capiliariasis from Saraburi Province, Thailand: report on the second

        case. J Med Assoc Thai 1974; 57: 458-460 

18     Mangmanee L, Aswapokee N, Vanasin B. Intestinal Capillariasis. Report of the fourth case in Thailand. Siriraj Hosp Gaz

         1977; 29: 439-449

19     Bhaibulaya M, Benjapong W, Noeypatimanond S. Infection of Capillaria philippinensis in man from Phetchabun

         Province, northern Thailand: a report of the fifth case. J Med Assoc Thai 1977; 60: 507-509   PubMed

20     Prakitrittranon W, Eua-Ananta YU, Dhiensiri T, Bhaibulaya M. Intestinal capillariasis from Maha Sarakham Province,

         northeast Thailand: report of a case. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1980; 11: 496-497   PubMed

21     Kunaratanapruk S, Iam-Ong S, Chatsirimongkol C, Dhirasut C, Laohanuwat C. Intestinal Capillariasis in Province: A

         report of 100 cases. Ramathibodi Med J 1983; 6: 253-258  

22     Pathnacharoen S, Tansuphaswadikul S, Manutstitt S, Thanangkul B. Intestinal Capillariasis: A review and report of 3

         cases. Ramathibodi Med J 1983; 6: 277-283 

23     Chunlertrith K, Mairiang P, Sukeepaisarnjaroen W. Intestinal capillariasis: a cause of chronic diarrhea and

         hypoalbuminemia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1992; 23: 433-436   PubMed

24     Benjanuwattar T, Morakote N, Somboon P, Sivasomboon B. Intestinal capillariasis: indigenous cases from Chiang Mai

         and Phayao provinces, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 1990; 73: 414-417   PubMed

25     Sangchan A, Wongsaensook A, Kularbkaew C, Sawanyawisuth K, Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Mairiang P. The endoscopic-

         pathologic findings in intestinal capillariais: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai 2007; 90: 175-178   PubMed

26     Cross JH, Banzon T, Singson C. Further studies on Capillaria philippinensis: development of the parasite in the

         Mongolian gerbil. J Parasitol 1978; 64: 208-213   PubMed

27     Bhaibulaya M, Indra-ngarm S, Ananthapruti M. Freshwater fishes of Thailand as experimental intermediate hosts for

         Capillaria philippinensis. Int J Parasitol 1979; 9: 105-108  

28     Cross JH, Banzon T, Clarke MD, Basaca-Servilla V, Watten RH, Dizon JJ. Studies on the experimental transmission of

         Capillaria philippinensis in monkeys. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1972; 66: 819-827   PubMed

29     Bhaibulaya M, Indra-Ngarm S. Amaurornis phoenicurus and Ardeola bacchus as experimental definitive hosts for

         Capillaria philippinensis in Thailand. Int J Parasitol 1979; 9: 321-322   PubMed

30     Cross JH, Basaca-Sevilla V. Experimental infections of Capillaria philippinensis in multimammate rats (Mastomys

         natalensis). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1983; 14: 264   PubMed

31     Tesana S, Bhuripanyo K, Sanpitak P, Sithithaworn P. Intestinal capillariasis from Udon Thani province, northeastern part

         of Thailand: report of an autopsy case. J Med Assoc Thai 1983; 66: 128-131   PubMed

32     Wongsawasdi L, Ukarapol N, Lertprasertsuk N. The endoscopic diagnosis of intestinal capillariasis in a child: a case

         report. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002; 33: 730-732   PubMed

33     Sun SC, Cross JH, Berg HS, Kau SL, Singson C, Banzon T, Watten RH. Ultrastructural studies of intestinal capillariasis

         Capillaria philippinensis in human and gerbil hosts. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1974; 5: 524-533  


34     Porth C. Pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states. 5 editor. Mew York: Lippincott, 1998: 590-591

35     el-Dib NA, Doss WH. Intestinal capillariass in Egypt epideiologigal background. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2002; 32: 145-154


36     Intapan PM, Maleewong W, Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Morakote N. Potential use of Trichinella spiralis antigen for

         serodiagnosis of human capillariasis philippinensis by immunoblot analysis. Parasitol Res 2006; 98: 227-231   PubMed


                   S- Editor  Liu Y    L- Editor  Alpini GD    E- Editor  Liu Y






Reviews Add

Related Articles:
Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on ischemic gut and liver injuries
Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand
Preventing physician quality of life from impinging on patient quality of care: Weakening the weekend effect
Aging and the intestine
Expression of intestinal trefoil factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and histological changes in intestine of rats after intrauterine asphyxia