Search Article Keyword  
PubMed Submission Abstarct PDF Cited  Click Count: 1565 DownLoad Count: 657 

ISSN 1007-9327 CN 14-1219/R  World J Gastroenterol  2005 June 21;11(23):3554-3557

Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine

Necla Kocak-Toker, Murat Giris, Feti T
uiubas, Mujdat Uysal, Gulcin Aykac-Toker


Necla Kocak-Toker, Gulcin Aykac-Toker, Mujdat Uysal, Murat Giris, Feti Tuiubas, Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa 34093, Istanbul, Turkey
Supported by the Istanbul University Research Foundation, No. BYP-247/20082003
Correspondence to: Necla Kocak-Toker, Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa 34093, Istanbul, Turkey.  nectok@yahoo.com
Telephone: +90-212-4142189-116    Fax: +90-212-4142189-129
Received: 2004-07-23    Accepted: 2004-10-13

Abstract
Aim:
Peroxynitrite (ONOO) is a powerful oxidant shown to damage membranes. In the present study, the effect of taurine on changes of liver plasma membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase induced by ONOO was investigated.

Methods: Liver plasma membrane was exposed to ONOO
with or without taurine. Na+, K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured.

Results: Different concentrations of ONOO (100, 200, 500, and 1 000 mmol/L) were found to decrease liver plasma membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase activity significantly. The depletion of enzyme activity was not concentration dependent. Effects of different concentrations of taurine on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity were also measured. Taurine did not cause any increase in enzyme activity. When plasma membranes were treated with 200
mmol/L ONOO with different concentrations of taurine, a restoring effect of taurine on enzyme activity was observed. TBARS levels were also measured and taurine was found to decrease the elevated values.

Conclusion: Taurine is observed to act as an antioxidant of ONOO
to decrease lipid peroxidation and thus affect liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase by restoring its activity.

ã 2005 The WJG Press and Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Key words: Na
+, K+-ATPase; Taurine; Peroxynitrite

Kocak-Toker N, Giris M, T
uiubas F, Uysal M, Aykac-Toker G. Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine. World J Gastroenterol  2005; 11(23): 3554-3557
http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/3554.asp

INTRODUCTION
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a free amino acid in mammalian tissues like liver, heart, brain, and leukocytes
[1]. Although it does not take part in protein structure, it has a pivotal role in maintenance of various cellular functions like osmoregulator, neuromodulator, and membrane stabilizer[2]. Besides its hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects, it is proved to be an effective antioxidant[3-6].
    ONOO is a powerful oxidant that can be formed by the reaction of superoxide anion and nitric oxide in significant amount in vivo. It has been shown to be associated with both beneficial and harmful effects. Its contribution to the host-defense response to bacterial invasion is known to be due to its production by neutrophils and macrophages. On the other hand, the role of ONOO
in ischemia-reperfusion has been implicated to cause myocardial dysfunction and infarction[7].  ONOO can react with DNA leading to mutations and strand breaks. It can cause oxidation of thiol groups, proteins and low molecular antioxidants and induce lipid peroxidation[8]. It is also known to nitrate macromolecules to contribute to various pathophysiological conditions.
    Na
+, K+-ATPase is a plasma membrane-bound enzyme that provides the necessary electrochemical gradients of Na+ and K+ to maintain the cell volume and thus it plays a crucial role in homeostasis[9]. It functions by exporting intracellular Na+ and importing extracellular K+ across the plasma membrane to provide energy for  membrane transport of various metabolites taking part in special cell functions. Therefore, dysfunction of the enzyme may lead to severe consequences.
    Na
+, K+-ATPase has been known to be a good target of free radical induced membrane damage[10]. Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals has been shown to inactivate the enzyme by particularly modifying the active site for binding of the substrates[11]. ONOO has also been known to disrupt membrane fluidity and decrease Na+, K+-ATPase activity by oxidation of its thiol groups and probably partially due to nitration of its aromatic amino acids[12,13].
    In this study we investigated the effects of taurine on changes of liver plasma membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase induced by ONOO.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
Bovine liver obtained from slaughterhouse from freshly slaughtered animal was rapidly rinsed with ice-cold physiological saline and frozen in liquid nitrogen. It was stored at -80
. All reagents used were analytically pure.

Liver plasma membrane preparation
Frozen liver portions were homogenized in ice-cold buffer containing 8% saccharose, 0.1 mmol/L phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride, 1 mmol/L EDTA and 30 mmol/L imidazole-HCl, pH 7.4
[14]. The homogenate was centrifuged at 120 r/min for 5 min, 6 800 r/min for 15 min and 48 000 g for 30 min using Sorvall centrifuge with AH-650 rotor. The obtained pellet was resuspended in 8% saccharose and 30 mmol/L imidazole-HCl, pH 7.4 and stored at -80 until use.

ONOO preparation
Five milliliters of 0.6 mol/L NaNO
2 and 5 mL 0.6 mol/L H2O2 in 0.7 mol/L HCl were filled in two syringes separately[15]. They were immersed in ice for about 30 min. A beaker containing 5 mL 1.2 mol/L NaOH solution with a magnetic stirrer was also cooled on ice. The syringes, after being cooled, were held with a T-piece above the NaOH solution that was in ice. Both plungers were rapidly pressed down at the same time. Excess H2O2 was removed by using granular MnO2 (2 g) at 4 . Concentration of ONOO was determined by measuring the absorbance at 302 nm using the extinction coefficient of 1 670/M.cm. ONOO solution was kept at -80 .

Preparation of decomposed ONOO–
Samples of the ONOO solution were allowed to decompose overnight in imidazole-HCl buffer to control the effect of decomposition products, nitrite and nitrate, and H
2O2.

Treatment of liver plasma membrane with ONOO and taurine
One hundred microliters of plasma membrane samples (30 mg protein) were incubated with 5 mL of 100, 200, 500, and 1 000
mmol/L ONOO solutions at room temperature. The incubations were done with decomposed ONOO as well. Following incubations, membrane Na+,K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were assayed.
    One hundred microliters of plasma membrane samples (30 mg protein) were incubated with taurine (1, 2, and 5 mmol/L) and 200 mmol/L ONOO (5 mL) plus 10 mL of taurine (1, 2, and 5 mmol/L). Following incubations, membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase activity and TBARS levels were measured.

Assay of Na
+, K+-ATPase activity
Enzymatic activity was measured in triplicate by the inorganic phosphate (P
i) released from ATP in the presence or absence of 1 mmol/L ouabain[12].  Membrane preparations (20
mg) were added to the medium containing 150 mmol/L NaCl, 5 mmol/L KCl, 2.5 mmol/L MgCl2 and 20 mmol/L imidazole-HCl buffer, pH 7.4. After 8 min of preincubation at 37 , 2.5 mmol/L ATPNa2 was added to make the final volume of 0.5 mL and to start the reaction. The samples were incubated at 37 for 30 min. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 100 mL of 35% ice-cold trichloroacetic acid. The amount of liberated Pi was measured in the supernatant by using FeSO4-ammonium molybdate solution. The mixtures were kept for 5 min in the dark and the absorbances were measured at 700 nm.

Determination of lipid peroxidation
The level of lipid peroxidation was assessed by the determination of TBARS
[16]. Following incubation with ONOO, membrane samples were reacted with TBA to yield a pink colored product. Absorbances were measured at 532 nm and the amount of TBARS was calculated by using the extinction coefficient of 1.56105/M.cm.
    Protein determinations were done by the method of Lowry et al., using bovine serum albumin as a standard
[17].

Statistical analysis
Ten experiments were performed separately. All results were expressed as mean
±SD. Statistically significant differences between groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test (THS test).

RESULTS
Effect of ONOO
on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase
When plasma membrane was treated with 100, 200, 500, and 1 000
mmol/L ONOO solutions, significant depletion of enzyme activity was observed with all ONOO concentrations (all P<0.05). However, ONOO with a concentration above 200 mmol/L produced no additional decreasing effect (Figure 1). Plasma membrane samples were also incubated with decomposed ONOO. This incubation was made to eliminate the effect of decayed products and contaminants. Decomposed ONOO solutions were also found to cause significant decreases in enzyme activity (P<0.05).

Figure 1
  (PDF) Effects of decomposed ONOO
and ONOO on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Values are mean±SD, n = 10. Values not sharing a common superscript letter are significantly different by ANOVA (THS test), aP<0.05 vs controls. Control (black), decomposed ONOO- (gray lines), ONOO (white lines).

Effect of taurine on liver plasma membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase
The effect of taurine on Na
+, K+-ATPase is shown in Table 1. After incubation of liver plasma membrane with 1, 2, and 5 mmol/L taurine, Na+, K+-ATPase activities were unchanged.

Table 1  Effect of taurine on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity (values are mean±SD, n = 10)
Groups  Na+,K+-ATPase activity (nmol Pi/mg Pr/min)  
Control  815.64±116.4 
Taurine (1 mmol/L)  798.60±31.52 
Taurine (2 mmol/L)  806.20±61.39 
Taurine (5 mmol/L)  781.06±77.62

Effect of taurine on ONOO induced inhibition of liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase
Since ONOO at concentration >200
mmol/L has not caused additional depletion in enzyme activity, 200 mmol/L was chosen to observe the effect of different concentrations of taurine on the change in enzyme activity (Table 2). With all chosen taurine concentrations, significant activity increases from the depleted values by decomposed ONOO and ONOO were observed (all P<0.05).

Table 2
 Effects of 200 mmol/L decomposed ONOO and ONOO
- with and without taurine on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity (values are mean±SD, n = 10)
Groups  Na+,K+-ATPase activity (nmol Pi/mg Pr/min)
Decomposed ONOO (200 mmol/L)  261.86±38.32a 
Decomposed ONOO (200 mmol/L) +taurine (1 mmol/L)  460.24±51.28a 
Decomposed ONOO (200 mmol/L) +taurine (2 mmol/L) 452.07±50.92a    
Decomposed ONOO (200 mmol/L) +taurine (5 mmol/L) 435.61±71.44a  
ONOO (200 mmol/L)      62.36±18.77a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)+taurine (1 mmol/L)  115.37±27.19a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)+taurine (2 mmol/L)  114.34±27.34a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)+taurine (5 mmol/L)  113.86±16.32a

Values not sharing a common superscript letter are significantly different by ANOVA (THS test), aP<0.05  vs others.

Effect of taurine on liver plasma membrane lipid peroxidation
TBARS levels were measured when liver plasma membrane was incubated with 200
mmol/L decomposed ONOO and 200 mmol/L ONOO with or without taurine (1, 2, and 5 mmol/L) (Table 3). The elevation of lipid peroxide levels was decreased with taurine in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05).

Table 3
Effects of taurine, 200
mmol/L decomposed ONOO and ONOO with and without taurine on liver plasma membrane. TBARS levels (values are mean±SD, n = 10)
Groups  TBARS (nmol MDA/mg Pr)  
Control  4.84±0.45a 
Taurine (1 mmol/L)  4.80±0.43a 
Taurine (2 mmol/L)  4.73±0.39a 
Taurine (5 mmol/L)  4.31±0.41a 
Decomposed ONOO 200 mmol/L  6.10±0.80a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)  25.62±1.08a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)+taurine (1 mmol/L)  19.80±0.78a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)+taurine (2 mmol/L)  17.52±0.73a 
ONOO (200 mmol/L)+taurine (5 mmol/L)  14.80±0.85a

Values not sharing a common superscript letter are significantly different by ANOVA (THS test), aP<0.05 vs others.

DISCUSSION
In this study, ONOO at 200
mmol/L was found to significantly decrease Na
+, K+-ATPase activity, when liver plasma membrane was treated with different concentrations of ONOO. Increasing ONOO concentration did not appear to cause an additional decreasing effect. In our previous works, human sperm Na+, K+-ATPase located in plasma membrane was also found to be significantly decreased when treated with 100 mmol/L ONOO-[13], with increasing lipid peroxide levels and decreasing total sulfhydryl content[18]. Indeed, ONOO releasing agents like 3-morpholinosy-dnonimine (SIN-1) have been found to inhibit Na+,K+-ATPase activity by interacting with a sulfhydryl group at the active site[19]. Incubation of liver plasma membrane with SIN-1 reduced Na+, K+-ATPase activity and it was suggested that ONOO caused inhibition both by oxidizing thiol groups and in part by decreasing membrane fluidity[12].
    Rat erythrocyte membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase was also found to be inhibited by ONOO, which was considered to be compatible with oxidation of thiol groups either directly by being involved in ATP binding or of those located outside the active site being important for enzyme activity[20].
    Taurine has been found to restore depletion of membrane Na
+, K+-ATPase activity due to ozone exposure or cholesterol enrichment, thus considered both as an antioxidant to prevent lipid peroxidation and as a membrane stabilizer to maintain the environment for Na+, K+-ATPase to function properly[21]. Glucose-induced lipid peroxidation and protein glycosylation have been lowered and erythrocyte Na+, K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities preserved by taurine treatment, implicating the inhibition of development of diabetic complications[22]. Chronic taurine supplementation has also been proved to decrease lipid peroxidation and preserve retinal Na+, K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rats[23].
    The scavenging activity of taurine against superoxide anion and peroxides is under debate
[24-27]. There are studies suggesting the absence of a direct reaction of taurine and oxygen-derived radicals, as well as taurine protection of hepatocytes against H2O2-stimulated damage[24]. While protection provided by taurine against reactive oxygen species has been assumed as an indirect action, its reaction with hypochlorous acid is clearly shown[28]. In the study of Redmond et al., however, treatment of cultured hepatocytes with 4 mmol/L taurine has been found to reduce apoptosis and necrosis by inhibiting nitric oxide and oxy radicals due to suppression of nitric oxide synthase mRNA[29]. Likewise in another study, it has been demonstrated that 1 mmol/L taurine could not reduce ONOO formation by SIN-1 treatment of cerebellar granular cells[30]. Indeed in the study of Mehta and Dawson, taurine at concentrations above 30 mmol/L has been shown to be only a modest scavenger of ONOO produced from SIN-1[31].
    Our study suggests that in vitro taurine treatment can protect liver plasma membrane against oxidative damage caused by ONOO, by acting as an antioxidant and thus contribute to restoring of Na
+, K+-ATPase activity.

REFERENCES
1    Schuller-Levis GB, Park E. Taurine:new implications for an old amino acid. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003; 226: 195-202
2    Hagar HH. The protective effect of taurine against cyclosporine A-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity 
      in rats. Toxicol Lett 2004; 151: 335-343
3    Balkan J, Kanbagll , Hatipoglu A, K
ucuk M, cevikbas U, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M. Improving effect of dietary 
      taurine supplementation on the oxidative stress and lipid levels in the plasma, liver and aorta of rabbits fed on 
      a high-cholesterol diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002; 66: 1755-1758
4    Balkan J,
oztezcan S, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M. Effects of added dietary taurine on erythrocyte lipids and oxidative 
      stress in  rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002; 66: 2701-2705
5    Balkan J, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Kanbagll ,
O vikbas U, Ayka-Toker G, Uysal M. Taurine has a protective effect 
      against thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis by decreasing oxidative stress. Hum Exp Toxicol 2001; 20: 251-254
6    Balkan J, Kanbagli , Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M. Taurine treatment reduces hepatic lipids and oxidative stress in 
      chronically ethanol-treated rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25: 1231-1233
7    Vinten-Johansen J. Physiological effects of peroxynitrite. Circ Res 2000; 87: 170-172
8    Ischiropoulos H, Al-Mehdi AB. Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative protein modifications. FEBS Lett 1995; 364: 279-282
9    Crambert G, Hasler U, Beggah AT, Yu C, Modyanov NN, Horisberger JD, Leli
evres L, Geering K. Transport 
      and pharmacological properties of nine different human Na,K-ATPase isozymes. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 1976-1986
10    Mense M, Stark G, Apell HJ. Effects of free radicals on partial reactions of the Na,K-ATPase. J Membrane Biol 
       1997; 156: 63-71
11    Mishra OP, Delivoria-Papadopoulos M, Cahillane G, Wagerle LC. Lipid peroxidation as the mechanism of modification 
       of the affinity of the Na+,K+-ATPase active sites for ATP, K+,Na+, and strophanthidin in vitro. Neurochem Res 1989; 
       14: 845-851
12    Muriel P, Sandoval G. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite anion modulate liver plasma membrane fluidity 
       and Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Nitric Oxide 2000; 4: 333-342
13    Ko
cak-Toker N, Aktan G, Ayka-Toker G. The role of Na,K-ATPase in human sperm motility. Int J Androl 2002; 
       25: 180-185
14    Sennoune S, Gerbi A, Duran MJ, Benkoel L, Pierre S, Lambert R, Dodero F, Chamlian A, Vague P, Maixent JM. 
       A quantitative immunocytochemical study of Na+,K+-ATPase in rat hepatocytes after STZ-induced diabetes and 
       dietary fish oil supplementation. J Histochem Cytochem 1999; 47: 809-816
15    Beckman JS, Chen J, Ischiropoulos H, Crow JP. Oxidative chemistry of peroxynitrite. Method Enzymol 1994; 
       233: 229-240
16    Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Chem 
       1979; 95: 351-358
17    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 
       1951; 193: 265-275
18   
Oztezcan S, Turkoglu UM, Kervancloglu E, Kocak T, Kocak-Toker N, Ayka-Toker G. In vitro effects of peroxynitrite 
       on human spermatozoa. Andrologia 1999; 31: 195-198
19    Sato T, Kamata Y, Irifune M, Nishikawa T. Inhibition of purified (Na
+,K+)-ATPase activity from porcine cerebral cortex 
       by NO generating drugs. Brain Res 1995; 704: 117-120
20    Muriel P, Castaneda G, Ortega M, Noel F. Insights into the mechanism of erythrocyte Na
+/K+-ATPase inhibition by 
       nitric oxide and peroxynitrite anion. J Appl Toxicol 2003; 23: 275-278
21    Qi B, Yamagami T, Naruse Y, Sokejima S, Kagamimori S. Effects of taurine on depletion of erythrocyte membrane 
       Na-K ATPase activity due to ozone exposure or cholesterol enrichment. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1995; 41: 627-634
22    Nandhini TA, Anuradha CV. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein glycation and elevation of membrane ion 
       pump activity by taurine in RBC exposed to high glucose. Clin Chim Acta 2003; 336: 129-135
23    Leo di MAS, Santini SA, Cercone S, Lepore D, Silveri NG, Caputo S, GrecoAV, Giardina B, Franconi F, Ghirlanda 
       G. Chronic taurine supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and Na+K+ATPase impairment in the retina of 
       diabetic rats. Amino Acids 2002; 23: 401-406
24    Schaffer S, Azuma J, Takahashi K, Mozaffari M. Why is taurine cytoprotective? Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 526: 307-321
25    Pokhrel PK, Lau-Cam CA. Protection by taurine and structurally related sulfur-containing compounds against 
       erythrocyte membrane damage by hydrogen peroxide. Adv Exp Med Biol 2000; 483: 411-429
26    Koyama I, Nakamura T, Ogasawara M, Nemoto M, Yoshida T. The protective effect of taurine on biomembrane 
       against damage produced by the oxygen radical. Adv Exp Med Biol 1992; 315: 355-359
27    Nakamura T, Ogasawara M, Koyama I, Nemoto M, Yoshida T. The protective effect of taurine on the 
       biomembrane against damage produced by oxygen radicals. Biol Pharm Bull 1993; 16: 970-972
28    Nakamori K, Koyama I, Nakamura T, Yoshida T, Umeda M, Inoue K. Effectiveness of taurine in protecting 
       biomembrane against oxidant. Chem Pharm Bull 1990; 38: 3116-3119
29    Redmond HP, Wang JH, Bouchier-Hayes D. Taurine attenuates nitric oxide- and reactive oxygen 
       intermediate- dependent hepatocyte injury. Arch Surg 1996; 131: 1280-1287
30    Boldyrev AA, Jonhson P, Wei Y, Tan Y, Carpenter DO. Carnosine and taurine protect rat cerebellar granular cells 
       from free radical damage. Neurosci Lett 1999; 263: 169-172
31    Mehta TR, Dawson R Jr. Taurine is a weak scavenger of peroxynitrite and does not attenuate sodium 
       nitroprusside toxicity to cells in culture. Amino Acids 2001; 20: 419-433

Science Editor Zhu LH and Guo SY  Language Editor Elsevier HK

 

Reviews Add
more>>


Related Articles:
Attenuation of portal hypertension by natural taurine in rats with liver cirrhosis
Ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes after taurine treatment in CCl4 induced liver injury
Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine
Protective effect of taurine on hypochlorous acid toxicity to nuclear nucleoside triphosphatase in isolated nuclei from rat liver
more>>